## Lectures on Radiation Dosimetry Physics: A Deeper Look into the Foundations of Clinical Protocols

**Author:**Michael W. Kissick and Sharareh Fakhraei

**ISBN:**9781930524927

**Published:**November 2016 | 156 pp | Softcover

### Price: $ 50.00

## Table of Contents

**1. Ionizing Radiation and What It Does in the Body**

References

**2. Radiation Fields and Their Statistics**

Fluence and Fluence Rate

Energy Fluence and Energy Fluence Rate

Angular Distributions

Energy Distributions

References

**3. Photon Interactions**

Cross Sections and the Attenuation Coefficient

Terma, Kerma, and Collision Kerma

Dose Definition

Narrow and Broad Beam Geometry of Photons

References

**4. Photoelectric Effect**

Differential Cross Section for Photoelectric Effect (K-shell)

Fluorescent Photons and Auger Electrons

Mass Energy Transfer Coefficient for the Photoelectric Effect

References

**5. Compton Scattering Effect**

Differential Cross Section for Compton Effect

Differential Cross Section Relative to Recoil Electron Energy

Mass Energy Transfer Coefficient for the Compton Effect

Binding Energy Correction for the Klein–Nishina Cross Section

References

**6. Pair (and Triplet) Production Effect**

Pair Production

Cross Section for Pair Production

The Similarity between Pair Production and Bremsstrahlung

Triplet Production

The Triplet Production Cross Section

Positron Annihilation in Flight

References

**7. Other Photon Interactions and Summary**

Rayleigh (Coherent) Scattering

Photonuclear Interactions

Relative Importance of Each Interaction Type

Total Cross Sections (or Coefficients)

Cross Sections for Compounds and Mixtures

References

**8. Charged Particle Interactions with Matter**

Interactions of Heavy Charged Particles

Stopping Power and Mass Stopping Power

Collisional Mass Stopping Power for Heavy Charged Particles

Soft Collision Mass Stopping Power for Heavy Charged Particles

Hard Collision Mass Stopping Power for Heavy Charged Particles

Shell Correction

Dependence of the Stopping Power on the Medium

Mass Collisional Stopping Power Dependence on Particle Velocity

Mass Collisional Stopping Power Dependence on Particle Charge

Electron and Positron Interactions

Mass Collision Stopping Power for Electrons and Positrons

Polarization or Density Effect Correction

Restricted Mass Stopping Power

Linear Energy Transfer and Unrestricted Linear Energy Transfer

Mass Radiative Stopping Power

Radiation Length

Radiation Yield

Elastic Scattering

Multiple Scattering

Particle Range

Calculating the CSDA Range

Projected Range

Practical Range

References

**9. Radiation Equilibrium**

Fano’s Theorem

Charged Particle Equilibrium

Exposure

Transient Charged Particle Equilibrium

References 85

**10. Absorbed Dose in Media Containing Radioactive Materials**

Radioactive Decay

Alpha Decay

Alpha Decay Specific to Dosimetry

Dose Rate Calculations for Alpha Decay

Beta Decay

Beta Decay Specific to Dosimetry

Fermi Theory of Beta Decay

Electron Capture (EC)

Dose Rate Calculations for Beta Decays and Electron Capture

Gamma Decay

Internal Conversion

Some Essential Gamma Decay Theory

Absorbed Fraction (AF)

Dose Rate Calculations for Gamma Decay and Internal Conversion

General Dose Rate Calculations

References

**11. Dose from Directly Ionizing External Radiation Sources**

Dose in Thin Films

1. Dose in Thin Films When d -ray CPE Exists

2. Dose in Thin Films When d-ray CPE Does Not Exist

Average Dose in Thick Foils

1. Average Dose in Very Thick Foils from Electrons

2. Average Dose in Thick Foils from Heavy Charged Particles

3. Average Dose in Thick Foils from Electrons

Dose When the Electron Energy Spectrum is Known

References

**12. Dosimetry Introduction**

Characteristics of Dosimeters

1. Precision or/vs. Accuracy

2. Dose Sensitivity

3. Stability

4. Energy Dependence

5. Angular Dependence

Ion Chamber Dosimetry

Cavity Theory

1. Bragg–Gray Cavity Theory

2. Spencer–Attix Cavity Theory

3. Other Cavity Theories for Photon Beams

Cavity Theory Examples and Discussion

Dosimetry Fundamentals

Advantages of Media Matching

References

**13. Cavity Ionization Chambers, Circuits, and Corrections**

Thimble-type Chambers

Condenser-type Chambers

Parallel Plate Chambers

Charge and Current Measurements

Charge Measurement Specifics

Current Measurement Specifics

Density and Humidity Corrections to an Ideal Ion Chamber

Ion Chamber Saturation and Recombination

References

**14. Calibration of Ion Chambers and Photon Beams**

Understanding TG-21 at the NIST Calibration Lab (ADCL)

Understanding TG-21 at the Clinic

Calibration of Electron Beams

Updated Calibration Protocol for Medical Photon Beams (TG-51)

A Few Key Concepts for TG-51 Calibration

References